Zero-knowledge Rollup

A zero-knowledge rollup (zk-rollup) is a layer-2 scaling solution that moves computation and state off-chain into off-chain networks while storing transaction data on-chain on a layer-1 network (for example, Ethereum). State changes are computed off-chain and are then proven as valid on-chain using zero-knowledge proofs. Zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs) have found two main applications in blockchains: improving scalability by verifying computation in sublinear time, and ensuring privacy by hiding sensitive information. TAOVM focused on this scalability property to achieve low transaction cost, validity guarantee, and friendly user experience.

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